The Republic of Belarus

The Republic of Belarus is situated in the centre of Europe. It borders on Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, the Ukrain, Russia and Poland. La. territory ifs much larger then such countries as Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece and the number of others. Its present population is about 12 million people. Belarus is a land of vast plains and picturesque hills, thick forests and green meadows, deep blue lakes and flowing rivers. Forests cover 2-5 of Belarus, they are scattered all over the country. There are a lot of rivers and lakes are in our country. The Dnieper, Pripyat, Beresins, Sozh, Zapadnaya Dvina, Neman are the biggest rivers with more then 500 kilometers in length. The largest lake in Belarus is lake Naroch which stretches 13 kilometers from West to East. It is very popular recreation

Aria in our country. Belarus has a moderately continental climate due to Atlantic influences with a worm winter and with a worm summer. TO most of the world Belarus is relatively known, a new country

in the central Europe. To its people it`s an ancient land. The history of Belarus goes back to ancient times beginning with the Polotsk Principality in the 10th century. From the 13th centuiy till the 16th centuiy the territory of present – day Belarus was the core of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in which Belarussian was the official language. It was one of the largest, most powerful and flourishing state*, in Eastern Europe. The 16th century is considered to be the Golden Age of Belarussion history. In this period there was a wide growth of old and the foundation of many new cities and towns. There occurred significant processes in culture and economy of Belarussian people. As Belarus is situated in the centre of Europe many wars took place in its territory. One of the greatest wars was in 1812 when the emperor Napoleon attacked Russia. And Belarussian lands became the arena, of military actions. A great number of Belarussians took part in this war against Napoleon. hi the 20th century alone Belarus has lived through three revolutions and three bloody wars. The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 is one of the
most heroic and tragic periods in the history of the centuiy. For three years the territory of Belarus was occupied by the Nazi. The country lost more then 3 million people (every third citizen felt in the fight against fascism), many towns and villages were ruined. Belarus lost more then half of its national wealth-Today Belarus is a developed industrial state. Industry makes up 70% of the Gross National Product. The main industries are engineering, chemical industry, wood-working industry, light and food industries. The major industrial centres in Belarus are Minsk, Gomel, Vitebsk, Mogilev, Soligorsk, Zhodino, Brest and others. Belarussian goods are exported to many countries and known, all over the world. Agriculture of Belarus specializes in milk and meet production, flax, vegetables (especially potatoes) and-fruit (especially apples). The Republic of Belarus has well-developed science and educational system – The Academy of Sciences found in 1929 is one of the largest centres of science in our country. Its research-institutes work on various important problems in such fields as mathematics, optics, genetics, biology, etc. The demand for higher education remains high. State institutions are the centres both for education and scientific research. Nowadays in Belarus there are 43 universities, academies and institutes which provide training in various spheres of science and humanities. Ai present Belarus actively participates in an effective international partnership with the government of different states and international organizations. As so-founder of the United Nati6nals Belarus contacts with various institutions and organizations of the United Nationals, World Bank, World Health Organization, International Labor Organization, UNESCO, the European Union, etc. Belarus cooperates with such countries as Germany, Denmark, France, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Great Britain, The USA and many others.

The republic of Belarus is a small beautiful country with the heroic past and difficult present. It is situated in Central Europe. The republic of Belarus borders on Russia, the Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. It has an area of 207,600 square kilometers and the population of more than 10 million. 77% of the population constitutes Belarussians. 64% live in cities, the largest of which are Minsk, which is the capital, Gomel, Mogilev, Brest, Grodno and Vitebsk. The original Belarussian tribes are Eastern Slavic tribes. Kryvichy, Drigovichi, Radzimichi, Lucichy and Sievieranie were related to the Baltic nations and grouped independent principalities, of whichthe most powerful was Polotsk, a port and a fortress on the river Dvina, which flows into the Baltic Sea. At the beginning of the

20th century Belarus was a backward province of the Russian Empire, called the North-Western Region. About 80% of its population were illiterate. The Belarussians weren`t even regarded as a nation at that time. After the revolution in 1917 Belarus was proclaimed the Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic and soon became the member of the USSR. Most of Belarus is a flat country. More than a quarter of its area is covered with the forests and bushes. The large forests are called “puschas”. The greatestof the m is Beloviezskaya Puscha, which is a state preserve. It is well known by its rare animals – aurochs. There are nearly 10000 lakes and 20000 rivers in Belarus. The largest lake is Naroch also called Belarussian Sea. The great part of the country lies in the Dnieper basi and the rest is watered by the Western Bug, the Neman and the Western Dvina. The Belarussian rivers are slow with almost no rapids. The climate in Belarus is moderately continental. The breathing of the Baltic Sea is constantly felt here. The beauty of the Belarussian nature, the past and the present of the Belarussian people have been celebrated in song and verse by the Yanka Kupala and Yakub Kolas – the classics of Belarussian poetry and by many present-day poets and writers, artists and composers of Belarus. Belarus has long been famous for its industries and skilful craftsmen: engravers and wavers, specialists in ceramic and craftsmen enjoy wide popularity at internal fairs and exhibitions. Unique souvenirs made by Belarussian craftsmen are known all over the world. Our Republic is rather rich in mineral resources: potash salts, coal, phosphates oil and iron. That`s why Belarus has a highly-developed industry. There are thousands of enterprises in the Republic which produce tractors and automobiles, motor-cycles, TV-sets and many other goods. Our Belarusian tractors and MAZ trucks enjoy a high reputation both in our country and abroad. Agriculture specializes in milk and meat production. The main crops cultivated here are potatoes, flor, grain, herbs and vegetables. Belarus is a republic of well developed science and culture. There is an Academy of Sciences, 37 higher educational establishments, about 400 professional schools, Secondary education in compulsory here.

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The Republic of Belarus