More than two million seven hundred twenty thousand one hundred seventy one persons Russian – the basic population of the Russian Federation live in the Samara Region. The formation of the Russian population of the Samara area occurred in the sixteenth – nineteen the centuries for the account of a resettlement from the other places. The first constant settlements in Zavolzhe have appeared after building a fortress Samara on the left coast of the Volga river in fifteen eighty six under which protection there were Russian settlements on Samara Luka. The peasants running to the Volga became founders of these villages in the central districts of Russia. The first Russian villages trebled, as a rule, under the aegis of large proprietors – church feudal lords and merchants – industrialists.
Large and small villages were the earliest Russian settlements in the territory of the Average Volga region. The last population was formed near the strengthened lines and fortified cities. The most widespread type of rural Russian settlements was a village with a small amount of yards. While increasing in number of inhabitants and occurrence of churches rural area was renamed into a village. Names of settlements had a various origin. On an environment the Samara region can be divided into northern and southern parts which natural watershed is the river Samara. In a northern part prevailing soil is the fertile chernozem with clay, limestone and quarts breeds, in a southern part – loam with the same sort.
Traditional instrument of labour was a plough, a heavy wheel plough – caban, a horse plough and a frame harrow. The heavy plough to which were put three-four, and sometimes five steams of an oxen, was available only in an economy of prosperous peasants, the horse plough was more universal and thus equally well overturned and loosened the earth.
The basic agricultural crops in territory of the Samara were the rye, oats, buckwheat, barley, peas, and also flax and hemp (for clothes manufacturing).
In the twentieth century there was a number of settlements where a down – knitting craft has been extented. Rod weathing of furniture and house utensils has been developed in the Samara province.
The Samara province is known for the house carving which has had especial development in northern areas.
The traditional national suit of Russian settlement of the Samara province prior to the beginning of the twentieth century represented three ethnographic groups: northern, southern and average.
The main element of a North Russian complex of Russian national suit is a sundress in a combination to a shirt, a headdress and a short breast clothes which has had various names (epanechka, korotyona, pyoruskry).
Today`s inhabitants of the Samara region remember different stories of our settlements and carefully store a sacred precept of our ancestors: to live in peace consent and respect.